To accomplish the Filipino people's new democratic revolution, which is a comprehensive social revolution, it is necessary to make revolution not only in the economic and political fields but also in the cultural field.

Otherwise the US and the local reactionary classes could use their cultural institutions and influence to control without cease the hearts and minds of the people and facilitate counterrevolution in every field. Up to the end of the 1950s, the attempt to resume the national democratic revolution was a dismal failure,and among the essential causes was the failure of the revolutionary party to undertake a new democratic cultural revolution.

The vigorous ideological and other cultural work of proletarian revolutionaries in the 1960s ushered in the new democratic cultural revolution which broke out in the 1970-1972 period starting with the First Quarter Storm of 1970. This cultural revolution would help carry forward the new democratic revolution in a big way.

The new democratic cultural revolution

Pursuant to the dictum that there can be no revolutionary movement without a revolutionary theory, the proletarianrevolutionaries engaged in ideological work despite the dangers posed by the Anti-Subversion Law.

Ideological work involved the study of the classical works of Marxism-Leninism, the contemporary works of successful proletarian revolutionaries in other countries and the writings of Filipino revolutionaries. It necessarily involved the study of Philippine history and circumstances with close attention to the basic social problems of the Filipino people and the Philippine revolutionary movement from 1896 to the 1950s.

The point was to integrate the revolutionary theory of the vanguard class and party with the concrete practice of the Philippine revolution. The ideological work resulted in the re-establishment of the Communist Party of the Philippines under the theoretical guidance of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism, and on the basis of the program of people's democratic revolution.

What the proletarian revolutionaries did was no different from what the principal leaders of the Katipunan and the Philippine revolution had done in applying the principles of revolutionary liberal democracy on the concrete conditions of the Philippines.

The proletarian revolutionaries challenged the dominant pro-imperialist and feudal culture in three ways: the adoption of Marxism-Leninism as their theoretical guide; the application of this on Philippine conditions through the program of people's democratic revolution; and the promotion of a national, scientific and mass culture.

Soon enough, the new democratic cultural revolution broke out. This took the form of massive rallies and marches, widespread teach-ins and discussion groups, the vigorous promotion of the national language, the efflorescence of protest art and literature, and the reorientation of social research and science teaching among many teachers and students. All these were undertaken along the new democratic line.

The popular call for a national, scientific and mass culture was resounding. The students, labor leaders, teachers and other professionals were in the forefront of the new democratic cultural revolution. They formed organizations in the Manila-Rizal region and other urban areas to pursue the new democratic revolution and create a new democratic culture.

At the same time, proletarian revolutionaries who were in the countryside intensified their ideological work and promoted a new democratic culture. As a matter of course, they were engaged in theoretical and political education but they also conscientiously established cultural organizations in the rural areas.

It can be assumed that the proletarian revolutionaries have advanced in their ideological and other cultural work as they have advanced in other aspects of their revolutionary work despite the rigors of the life-and-death struggle between revolution and counterrevolution.

To speak of a new democratic cultural revolution espousing and creating a national, scientific and mass culture is necessarily to affirm the fruitful activism of proletarian revolutionaries in ideological and other cultural work.

But the progressive liberal democrats have also made significant contributions to the preparations and conduct of the new democratic cultural revolution. They have done well in recalling the revolutionary spirit of 1896, joining the anti-imperialist and antifeudal struggle, combating the reactionary character of the dominant church and defending civil liberties.

The progressive liberal democrats can make bigger contributions to every major aspect of the new democratic revolution only in combination with the proletarian revolutionaries. Both proletarian revolutionaries and progressive liberal democrats recognize that together theycan win the new democratic revolution and create a national, scientific and mass culture.

Under the impact of the new democratic cultural revolution, which has militated large numbers of educated youth, quite a number of professors and other professionals who have taken higher studies in American and local reactionary schools, and even priests and nuns of the dominant church, have recognized the need for a national, scientific and mass culture.

The new democratic revolution is creating its own organizations and means and at the same time penetrating and taking portions of cultural institutions and processes which have been used to dominate the people.

The national aspect

The new democratic culture has a national character. It upholds, defends and promotes the national sovereignty and independence of the Filipino people. It celebrates the revolutionary struggle and achievements of the Filipino nation. It inspires this nation to realize its aspirations and attain greater achievements.

It does away with colonial mentality and confronts every form of US cultural aggression. It enhances patriotism, the self-respect and the self-reliance of the nation. But it is ever ready to learn and accept foreign things that benefit the nation.

It preserves and cherishes the national cultural heritage from as far back in time as can be brought to light. It seeks to learn from the past in order to serve the present without prejudice to the future.

It promotes the use of the national language as the principal medium of official communication, education and information. The point is to facilitate the common understanding of the entire nation. The dominance of English must be ended although this language may remain the principal language for foreign intercourse. While it is concerned with maintaining and developing a modernnation-state, the new democratic culture embraces, respects and promotes the local languages and cultures, especially those of national minorities that have rebelled because of Filipino chauvinism and discrimination. Linguistic and cultural plurality enriches Philippine culture. US control of Philippine educational and cultural policies through direct official and unofficial instruments and indirect ones like the World Bank must be terminated. Foreign assistance for education must not result in foreign control of educational policies, staffing, scholarship and research grants, construction of facilities, acquisition of materials and textbook content and production.

Educational policies, courses of study and textbooks (especially in the social sciences and humanities) must be made by Filipino educators imbued with the national spirit and patriotic ideas of the new democratic culture. Textbook writers must be encouraged and well remunerated.

All imported cultural materials like movies, TV programs, books, periodicals and the like as well as cultural performances which do not help in the cultural progress of the Philippines should either be highly taxed or banned, if corrupting.

Filipino writers and artists and their cultural productions must be supported with grants and other incentives through their organizations and must not be taxed. They must be enabled to live on their cultural work rather than depend on other means of livelihood.

No foreign entity whatsoever should own any major medium of communication, education or information. Political propaganda by any foreign entity would be prohibited. Commercial advertising by US and other transnational corporations shall be under strict supervision and control.

The scientific aspect

The new democratic culture has a scientific aspect. It adopts a scientific outlook and methodology. It combats the pro-imperialist and reactionary ideas of feudal metaphysics and bourgeois subjectivism. But it does not waste its time in public on theological and philosophical issues. It respects the freedom of thought and belief. And it seeks the united front and practical cooperation of all scientists, engineers and technologists for the industrial and all-round development of the motherland whether they be dialectical materialists, bourgeois empiricists or believers in a deity.

Science and technology is promoted with the clear purpose of developing the country industrially and economically. The ranks of scientists, engineers and other technologists will be rapidly expanded. Their scientific and technical expertise shall be used creatively and productively. No longer shall their priorities be limited to seeking positions as sales executives or minor technicians in foreign transnational corporations here and abroad. They shall be in charge of basic processes and full-scale construction.

Programs of study in the basic sciences, engineering, and modern agriculture shall be rapidly expanded. Teachers and students in these fields shall be given top priority and all-out support in remuneration and facilities. They shall be given opportunities to learn the most adaptable and latest advances in science and technology abroad through exchange programs and the acquisition of new equipment from abroad. The scientific outlook and methodology shall prevail in the social sciences. Social science studies and research shall concentrate on the processes of oppression and exploitation through the ages and in recent or current circumstances and on the struggles of the oppressed and exploited to liberate themselves. The point is not only to understand or interpret the laws of social change, but to change oppressive and exploitative social conditions.

The social scientists should be encouraged to do their social research among the people and not to limit themselves to library research. The point is to learn how thepeople themselves can change their own conditions for their own benefit without the strictures of dogmatism and bourgeois scientism and the unreasonable trends of thought and belief among the people.

In the humanities, it is part of the scientific outlook and methodology to know and respect all the cultural accomplishments of the past, preserve them for appreciation or criticism, and adopt traditional cultural forms for the promotion of revolutionary ideas and sentiments.

Social realism, revolutionary romanticism, social criticism and other healthy schools of thought and trends of style must be encouraged in new artistic and cultural creations and in critical work. Large numbers of artists must be able to live on their artistic professions through their own organizations and cultural production units. Health, sports, entertainment and all other cultural programs must be geared towards the mental and physical well-being and fitness of the people for social revolution and construction.

Within and outside definite programs in the natural sciences, social sciences and humanities, in direct relation to definite programs of the social revolution and construction, full play must be given to the initiative and creativity of individuals and collectives.

The professionals and technicians of the country would not have to go abroad if opportunities for their gainful employment and creativity were assured and expanded by the industrial and all-round progress of the country.

The mass aspect

The new democratic culture has a mass character. It serves the people, especially the toiling masses of workers and peasants, in their all-round revolutionary struggle and productive work.

To raise their own consciousness and effectiveness in revolution and production, the people must become literate. The public school system must be expanded and highschool education for the youth must become universal. Campaigns must be waged to wipe out illiteracy, and must be effective because they are related to revolution and production.

The higher the level of formal education that certain persons attain, the greater is their tendency to be divorced from the toiling masses. To close the widening gap between those who have higher education and those who have lower education, there must be no let-up in promoting the revolutionary spirit that binds the two and there must be practical programs of bringing to the people the direct service of the educated as well as programs to raise the educational level of the people who have had no opportunities to enrol in formal schools.

The print and electronic media must be used to bring complete courses of study to the unschooled as well as to popularize scientific and technical knowledge on current problems in social revolution and production.

Artistic and other cultural creations that are of high aesthetic standards and that reflect the sufferings, struggles and achievements of the working people must be promoted. At the same time, a great mass of artists and cultural activists must be developed to create what they can, using traditional and modern forms.

There must be cultural cadres who live with the people and lead the educational and cultural work among them through educational and cultural organizations.

There must be cultural cadres deployable from centers ranging from the national to the municipal. And there must be cadres who come from local communities which sponsor their higher education and training for the purpose of serving them for a definite period of time.

The revolutionary orientation of education and culture and the spirit of service to the people are the motivation that will keep the professionally and technically trained in the country. So long as these motivations are instilled inthem, and they get decent remuneration, the educated will not leave the country only to get higher remuneration but suffer the pain of exile.

In the course of the new democratic revolution, cultural cadres arise in the urban centers and in the local rural communities. The new democratic revolution will win because these cultural cadres do their work well, increase their ranks, and serve the people well.